Old Testament Lesson 19 (Exodus 35–40; Leviticus 1; 16; 19)
A Commandment to Build the Tabernacle
● On Mt. Sinai, the Lord instructed Israel on the Tabernacle—their portable temple.
● Exodus 25–30 Instructions on how to operate the tabernacle.
● Exodus 35–40 Instructions on how to build the tabernacle.
THE PURPOSE OF THE WILDERNESS TABERNACLE
The Tabernacle Was a Portable Temple
● Exodus 25:8,22 Out of the thunders of Sinai the Lord revealed a glorious plan by which he could redeem the
● Exodus 29:43 children of Israel. The Lord opened the heavens to Moses and through him extended to Israel
● D&C 84:23–27 the opportunity to come to a fulness of his glory, taste of his love, and truly become a Zion people.
● During his 40–day fast upon the mount, Moses received every detail needed for the
construction of a tabernacle, a house of the Lord, where Israel could come and
receive the keys of salvation and exaltation.
● The tie between this tabernacle and latter-day temples is clear. It was to be. . .
— A house wherein “every needful thing” could be found (D&C 109:15)
— “A house of prayer, a house of fasting, a house of faith, a house of glory and of God,”
so that “all the incomings of thy people, into this house, may be in the name of
the Lord; that all their outgoings from this house may be in the name of the Lord”
(D&C 109:16–18; Leviticus 9:23; 10:8–11).
— A place where, through the power of revelation, Israel could be “taught words of
wisdom” and “seek learning even by study, and also by faith” (D&C 109:14).
● Exodus 28:4, 40–41 The priests who were to officiate in the tabernacle needed to be prepared to enter
● Exodus 29:4–7 the Lord’s presence. They were to be washed with water, anointed with oil, clothed in holy
garments, and ordained or consecrated. Likewise, we today need to prepare to worship in the
The Tabernacle—God’s Presence Among the People
● Exodus 25:8, 22 The Lord had promised to manifest Himself to the people.
● Exodus 33:9–11 The Lord subsequently kept this promise.
● Exodus 25:10–22 The ark of the covenant was the most sacred object in the tabernacle. It was a chest measuring
Hebrews 9:4 about 2 1/2 x 4 feet and contained the second set of tablets given to Moses, the rod of Aaron, and a
pot of manna. Thus the ark was a continual reminder of God’s covenant with the people.
● D&C 124:38 The tabernacle had another important purpose—sanctification.
— Priesthood ordinances help us become a holy people by symbolically teaching us about our relationship with God and
endowing us with his sanctifying power.
The Tabernacle’s Tokens and Symbolism
● Ordinances: The Laws of Obedience and Sacrifice
Washed with Water
Anointed with Oil
Clothed in Holy Garments (Josephus describes them)
Ordained and Consecrated
● Tokens: Bread and Wine
Candles (the Light of Christ and of the Spirit)
Incense (signifies the presence of the Spirit)
Ark of the Covenant
● Promises: The reasons . . . and what they could have had (D&C 124:38).
“The Mysteries of Godliness”
● D&C 124:38–39 The Lord told Moses to build the Tabernacle so he could reveal to them the ordinances we enjoy
today in our temples.
● D&C 19:10 The Lord proclaims their greatness.
● D&C 28:7 They are the key to sealed mysteries and revelations.
● D&C 76:7 They are the key to mysteries from days of old.
● D&C 84:19–22 Without them, we cannot see God.
President Harold B. Lee said, “It was of this subject that the Prophet Joseph Smith spoke when he said: ‘The principle
of salvation is given us through the knowledge of Jesus Christ’ 1, and that ‘knowledge through our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is the grand key that unlocks the glories and mysteries of the kingdom of heaven.”2
“These revelations, which are reserved for and taught only to the faithful Church
members in sacred temples, constitute what are called the ‘mysteries of Godliness.’ The
Lord said He had given to Joseph ‘the keys of the mysteries, and the revelations which are
sealed. . . .’ (D&C 28:7). As a reward to the faithful, the Lord promised: ‘And to them will I
reveal all mysteries, yea, all the hidden mysteries of my kingdom from days of old. . . .’ (D&C
This portable structure was to be made with the finest materials and workmanship
available. It was to be the house of the Lord, the equivalent of our modern temples.
Built With a Willing Heart by the People
● Exodus 25:1–9 The Lord requires a willing sacrifice in order to build His house.
— v. 8 The Lord clearly revealed the purpose for the tabernacle—it was to be
the house of the Lord. The Hebrew word which is translated
“tabernacle” actually means “tent” or “dwelling”.
— v. 9 The phrase “according to all that I shew thee”, indicates that Moses
was shown in vision the tabernacle and all its furnishings.
● Exodus 35:20–22, 25–26, 29 When Israel heard what the Lord asked, their hearts
were touched and they responded liberally and with
● 2 Cor. 9:6–7 Sacrifices must be given “with a cheerful heart”.
● Moroni 7:6–10 Otherwise . . . sacrifice becomes an evil act.
● D&C 97:10–12 Temples today are also built with great sacrifices.
● Exodus 36:5–7 Moses eventually had to restrain them from giving too much.
● Exodus 31:1–11 Bezaleel and Aholiab were artisans called to build the Tabernacle.
Materials To Be Used
● Exodus 26:1–29, 36–37 The tabernacle had a wooden framework covered with beautiful and precious materials.
— Shittim wood covered with gold.
— It weighed 10 tons.
— Descendants of Levi carried it.
— The Camp of Israel surrounded it (603,000 men, 2–3 million people).
— Cubits: The dimensions of the tabernacle are described in a unit of measure called a cubit,
which is about eighteen inches in length.
● Exodus 25:10 Shittim (shee-teem) wood was used throughout the Tabernacle.
— A desert acacia tree common to Egypt and the Near East.
— A hard wood that would last a long time.
— A light weight wood that would transport more easily.
— A wood with a very high degree of polish.
● Exodus 25:15–16 Walls made of fabric and portable wood panels
— Surrounding the Tabernacle itself was a large enclosed area protected
by woven hangings attached to a movable wall.
— Pillars stood at regular intervals around the Tabernacle courtyard.
— Each pillar was ringed horizontally by silver fillets—rectangular
bands around each pillar to both protect the wood and beautify it.
— The fabric which formed the outer walls of the court was attached to
the top of each pillar and secured at the bottom by ties to the brass
pins which were firmly driven into the ground.
— For the Tabernacle itself, wood panels were fastened together to form
— Four fabric layers covered all walls and the ceiling.
— Ten curtains, or pieces of fabric, were needed to cover the entire
— The special border at the edge of each woven piece prevented
— By means of golden clasps or pins called taches, the borders of
adjacent curtain segments were joined together, creating the
appearance of a single drape over the tabernacle.
— The inner fabric was made of fine-twined linen. The Hebrew word
translated “linen” signifies not only the fabric but also “whiteness”.
— The other three fabrics consisted of goats’ hair, rams’ skins dyed red,
and “badgers’ skins” (Exodus 26:7, 14). Scholars agree that this
last layer was not really made from the skin of badgers. The
Hebrew word implies the color, more than the kind, of fabric.
Some scholars believe it may have been the skins of porpoises or
seals from the Red Sea which would have given the tabernacle a
waterproof outer covering.
● Symbolic Colors: The colors used had symbolic meaning:
— Cherubim (winged angels) were embroidered into these white inner coverings.
— Other colors were incorporated into this embroidery—blue, purple, and scarlet.
— White linen walls – symbolized purity.
— Blue embroidery – symbolized priesthood.
— Purple – symbolized royalty.
— Scarlet – symbolized atonement.
● Exodus 25:17 Use of gold, silver, and bronze in the Tabernacle.
— Much of the furniture of the tabernacle was constructed of shittim wood covered with gold leaf. Had the
furnishings been made of solid gold, they would have been too heavy to carry.
— Gold is employed in scripture as a symbol of divinity, purity, incorruptibility, and endurance.
— Pure gold was used in the Holy of Holies and Holy Place.
— Ordinary gold used for all other fixtures, hinges, etc.
— Silver was used in the Outer Court for bases, pillars, etc.
— Bronze was also used in the Outer Court for the altar.
— These two metals also have symbolic as well as functional significance.
“The relativity of holiness was . . . pointed up by the materials. Fine or pure gold was
used for the Ark, the propitiatory, the table of the Presence and its vessels; for the
lampstand and its accessories; for the altar of incense; and for the high priest’s garments.
Ordinary gold was employed for the moldings, the rings, and the staves of the Ark, of the
table, and of the incense altar; for the hooks of the curtains; for the frames and bars; for the
pillars of the veil and screen; and for other parts of the high priest’s vestments. Silver was
reserved for the bases of the frames, for the pillars of the veil, and for moldings in the court.
Finally there was bronze, of which metal the altar of burnt offering and its utensils, the
bases of the court, and the laves were made. The same principle applied to the
embroidered stuff and linen.” 4
● The Temple Veils
— One veil covered the outer door to the tabernacle (the front entrance).
— Another veil separated the holy place (first room) from the inner Holy of Holies.
— This latter veil is properly called “the veil of the Tabernacle”.
General Layout of the Tabernacle
● Three Areas: There were three major divisions or areas in the Tabernacle—the outer
courtyard; the first room of the tabernacle proper (the holy place); and
the inner room, or Holy of Holies.
● Hebrews 9:1–7 “The theme of gradation was continued in . . . the three divisions of the people.
Leviticus 16 The Israelites could enter the court only; the priests could serve in the Holy Place; the high
priest alone could enter the Holy of Holies but once a year—on the Day of Atonement.” 5
Dedication of the Tabernacle
● Exodus 39:32–43 All the materials for the tabernacle were finished and brought to Moses.
● Exodus 30:22–33 The tabernacle was set up, and Moses anointed it and the sacred vessels within it,
● Exodus 40:1–11,16–33 according to the Lord’s instructions.
— Pure olive oil was a sacred symbol of the Spirit of the Lord (D&C 45:56–57).
— It signified the sanctification of the person or object anointed (Exodus 30:29).
— The use of oil can also be an indication of the existing purity of the person, since the Spirit of the Lord
will not dwell in an unclean tabernacle.
— Anointing these objects with oil suggests that the tabernacle and all connected with it were sanctified
by the Spirit for service to God.
● Exodus 40:34–38 The Lord accepted the tabernacle as his dwelling place on earth.
SUMMARY OF TABERNACLE SYMBOLISM
The volume of ordinances and symbols in the Tabernacle (and modern day Temples) is so
great that it cannot be covered in a single lesson. The following is a quick summary of the
ordinances, tokens, and movements through the temple. After this summary, a detailed
discussion follows for your edification as a student and teacher of the Old Testament. Do
not attempt to teach all these things in your classes.
● Laws of Obedience and Sacrifice
● Washed with Water
● Anointed with Oil
● Clothed in Holy Garments
● Ordained and Consecrated
● Bread and Wine (symbolizing the emblems of the Atonement)
● The Menorah (symbolizing the Light of Christ and of the Spirit)
● Incense (symbolizing prayer, as it ascends up to heaven)
● The Ark of the Covenant
● The Mercy Seat (source of mercy where God and man “meet”)
Progression and Promises
● Three Degrees The person progressed from telestial to terrestrial and finally celestial
rooms. The last of these was obtained by passing through the veil of
In this sacred place—the Holy of Holies—the person was standing
literally in the presence of God.
THE OUTER COURTYARD
■ The Outer Courtyard of the Tabernacle corresponds to the world or telestial rooms of
■ Anyone from Israel could bring sacrifices into this Courtyard, but only priests could enter
the Tabernacle itself.
■ The outer courtyard contained the altar of burnt offerings (altar of sacrifice) and the
laver of water for the symbolic cleansing of hands and feet.
The Altar of Sacrifice
● Exodus 27:1–19 The first thing encountered as one entered the main gate was the
altar of sacrifice, where all burnt offerings performed within the
● A Horned Altar — It was hollow, five cubits square and three cubits high (7.5×7.5x5ft.)
— It was made of shittim wood overlaid with brass plates.
— The altar had four horns on its corners, as did all Canaanite altars.
— By laying hold of these horns a person could find asylum and safety (1 Kings 1:50; 2:28), although not if he was guilty of premeditated murder (Exodus 21:14).
— Sometimes the horns were used to bind the animal or intended sacrifice.
● Other Tools: The priests used fire shovels, basins, fire pans, and flesh hooks. They were
very similar to tools used in barbecuing meat today.
— The firepan was a container in which the fire was kept continuously burning.
— The pan was a large, brazen dish placed under the altar to catch falling ashes.
— Brazen fire shovels were used for emptying the pans.
— The basons were receptacles used to catch the blood from the sacrifice.
— The fleshhook was a three-pronged hook that the priest used to dip into the
sacrificial container. That which he brought up was to be kept for himself.
● Exodus 29:7, 16–21 Participants are anointed prior to other ordinances.
— Some of the blood of the sacrifice was smeared on the horns of the altar.
— v. 20 The ear, hands, and foot of the offerer of the sacrifice were then anointed
with the blood of the sacrifice.
“The priest put some of its blood upon the tip of the right ear, the right
thumb, and the great toe of the right foot of the person to be consecrated,
in order that the organ of hearing, with which he hearkened to the word
of the Lord, and those used in acting and walking according to His
commandments, might thereby be sanctified through the power of the
atoning blood of the sacrifice.” 6
— Ordinances: The ordinance of blood sacrifice.
The ordinance of anointing.
— Covenants: Obedience and sacrifice.
— Symbolism: This first step could be likened to having faith in Christ (looking to
the Great and Last Sacrifice) and repentance.
The sacrificial fires of the great altar thus signified that “spiritual
purification would come by the Holy Ghost, whom the Father
would send because of the Son”. 7
The Brazen Sea (Laver)
● Exodus 30:17–21 Directly in line next in the courtyard was the laver, or basin of
water, which was used for washing and cleansing.
— The Laver, like the altar of sacrifice, was made of brass.
— It stood between the altar of sacrifice and the Tabernacle.
— It was used by the priests for cleansing, preparatory to entering the tabernacle.
— In Solomon’s day, when a permanent temple was constructed, the laver was set
on the backs of twelve oxen (1 Kings 7:23–26).
— Ordinances: Ordinance of washing.
Ordinance of baptism.
— Covenants: Personal purity from the blood and sins of the world (murder,
— Symbolism: Since the baptismal font itself is a “similitude of the grave” (D&C
128:13), where the “old man” of sin is buried (Romans 6:1–6), the
symbolism of the laver seems clear.
Once the “natural man” has been sacrificed (put to death through a
broken heart and sincere repentance), he is cleansed by both the
waters of baptism and the fires of the Holy Ghost (2 Nephi 31:17).
— Once the ordinances of repentance and cleansing have been completed, the
person is prepared to leave the world, or a telestial way of living, and enter into a
higher state of spiritual life.
THE HOLY PLACE
■ The Holy Place of the Tabernacle corresponds to terrestrial rooms of modern temples.
■ Entering into this room required priesthood ordination; only priests could enter it.
■ The Holy Place contained three articles of furniture: the table of shewbread, the sacred
candlestick, and the altar of incense.
The Table of Shewbread
● Exodus 25:23–30 This was a table of bread and wine that remained “before the
Exodus 26:35 Lord’s presence” (the Holy of Holies) always.
— It was made of shittim wood with a gold overlay (vv. 23–24).
— It had a crown and border (probably a rim) of gold on the top
— It had rings and staves to provide for easy transport.
— It was about 3 feet long, 18 inches wide, and 27 inches high.
— Various vessels of gold—called spoons, dishes, and covers in
the King James Bible—were made for use with the table.
● Shewbread: The table got its name from the 12 loaves of bread placed upon it.
— The Lord called it “shewbread” (v. 30), which means “bread of presence”.
— This signifies that the bread was placed before the Lord or in his presence
— The bread was made of fine flour (that is, the wheat had been very finely
ground and not left with the kernels partially intact).
— Two-tenths of a deal would be about a fifth of a bushel of flour, which
would have produced 12 loaves of over 10 pounds each.
— There were two stacks of 6 loaves of bread and frankincense bowls on top
— The frankincense was later burned on the “altar of incense” (Lev. 24:6–7).
— The bread was changed each Sabbath and the bread that was removed
was eaten by the priests (Leviticus 24:8–9).
— This was the bread given to David when he fled from King Saul (1 Sam.
● Wine: Scholars and Jewish traditions agree that wine was also placed on the table.
— The “spoons” were actually vessels or cups, rather than the spoons we
— They were probably the containers for some liquid to be drunk—
— Symbolism: The Shewbread symbolizes the Bread of Life.
These are the same emblems used in the Sacrament in our day.
The table of shewbread therefore typifies the body and blood of
the Son of God.
The Sacred Golden Candlestick
● Exodus 25:31–39 The Tabernacle’s source of light was the Sacred Candlestick—
Exodus 27:20–21 called “menorah” in Hebrew, which means the “place of lights”.
— This candlestick or lampstand held not candles but rather 7 cup-shaped
containers filled with pure olive oil into which a wick was inserted and lit.
— Made of solid gold, the menorah was supported by a base which rested upon
— Its shaft rose from the base which was decorated by knops (spherical
ornaments), bowls (enlargements proportionate in size to the knops,
engraved with almond blossoms and petals.
— Symbolism: Pure olive oil symbolizes the Holy Spirit in Hebrew culture
The number 7 symbolizes perfection.
The 7 branches of olive oil symbolize the perfect light of the Spirit.
The Jewish festival of Hannukah, or the festival of lights, celebrates
the time when Judas Maccabeus finally drove the Greeks from the
temple in Jerusalem around 165 B.C. The Maccabees found only
enough consecrated oil for the sacred lamps to last one day. The
consecration of new oil took 8 days; yet miraculously, the meager
supply burned until a new supply could be prepared.
The Altar of Incense
● Exodus 30:1–10 The altar of incense stood directly in front of the veil (v. 6).
— The altar of incense was made of shittim wood covered with gold.
— It had rings and staves for carrying.
— Each morning and evening the priest put hot coals on the altar.
— He then poured the incense on the altar.
— Symbolism: Incense is symbolic of prayer in Hebrew culture, as the vapors of
the offering ascend up to heaven.
The placement of the altar of incense suggests that one should
approach the Lord’s presence through prayer.
The continuous nature of the ordinance suggests the need for
The Veil of the Tabernacle
● Exodus 26:31–33 The veil separated the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies.
— Symbolism: Passing through the veil symbolizes passing into the presence of
THE HOLY OF HOLIES
■ The Holy of Holies of the Tabernacle corresponds to the celestial rooms of modern
■ Because entering into the presence of God requires the blessings of the Melchizedek
priesthood, only the High priest could enter this room—and then only once per year on
the Day of Atonement.
■ The only article of furniture in this inner room was the ark of the covenant
The Ark of the Covenant
● Exodus 25:10–16 The Ark of the Covenant was literally a box (Hebrew “ark”) that
Exodus 37:1–9 contained sacred artifacts to remind Israel of their miraculous
history and blessings.
— The Ark of the Covenant was a box of acacia wood overlaid with gold.
— It was approximately 3 ft. 9 in. long, 2 ft. 3 in. wide, and 2 ft. 3 in. high.
— Staves, or poles, on both sides allowed the priests to carry it without
actually touching the ark itself.
— It contained the Tablet of the Law (referred to as “the covenant”)
— Hence, it was called “the ark of the covenant”
— A pot of manna was also placed in the ark
— Later, Aaron’s rod, which miraculously bloomed, was also placed in it.
— The Ark of the Covenant was the most sacred object in the tabernacle.
— It was viewed with the greatest reverence by the Israelites, and
prayers were recited before it was moved or placed in position
— Symbolism: The Ark was a continual reminder of God’s covenant with Israel.
The Mercy Seat
● Exodus 25:17–22 The lid of the Ark was called the “Mercy Seat”, which the Lord said
was the place where he would meet Moses and commune with the
people (v. 22).
— The Hebrew word kapporeth is translated “mercy seat” but it more
literally means “seat of atonement.”
— This lid was made of solid gold.
● Leviticus 16:14–15 It was also the place where the blood of the sacrifice was
sprinkled by the High priest on the Day of Atonement.
“The blood of the lamb of Jehovah was sprinkled upon the mercy seat during the sacred day
of Atonement . . . The Greek word hilasterion, translated “propitiation,” was also used to
translate the Hebrew kapporeth (“seat of atonement”) in the Greek Old Testament . . . “If
then we take hilasterion to mean the mercy-seat, and if Jesus is our hilasterion [as Paul says
he is] . . . it means . . . that Jesus is the place where man and God meet, and that specially He
is the place where man’s sin meets with the atoning love of God.”
— Symbolism: The Mercy Seat is symbolic of Christ is two important ways:
— It is the place and the means by which God and man meet
— It is also the means by which mercy is obtained.
● On the lid of the Ark were formed two “cherubim” (symbolic winged angels) which
came up and overshadowed the mercy seat.
● The word cherubim usually refers to guardians of sacred things. While the exact
meaning of the word is not known, most scholars agree that these cherubim
represented redeemed and glorified persons or “glorified saints and angels.”
● Latter-day Saints do not believe that angels have wings. In Hebrew culture, wings
symbolically represent the power to move and to act (D&C 77:4). Between these
cherubim on the mercy seat, God told Moses, He would meet with him and commune
with him. Latter-day revelations state that angels stand as sentinels guarding the
presence of God (D&C 132:19).
— Symbolism: The Cherubim symbolize the guardian angels in the presence of
the Lord—a beautiful representation of the concept that we pass
by the angels on our way to exaltation (D&C 132:19).
THE ORDER OF THE PRIESTHOOD
Progression by Degrees to God’s Presence
● The Tabernacle and its court were a school wherein the things of heaven were revealed
to the people.
● It was originally intended that an Israelite could move from the outer court of the
Tabernacle to its inner and more holy precincts and observe, in so doing, that the
handiwork and ornamentation became progressively more intricate, ornate, and
secluded until at last the ritual placed them before the holy presence, even the Holy of
● Sacred beyond description, protected from the eyes of the unworthy, these ordinances
were designed to be, and could have become, the bonding agent between worthy Israel
and her God.
● This symbolic journey was denied Israel because of her pride and rebellion (Ex.
● Therefore, Israel lost these higher blessings and became dependent upon the officiating
priests who acted as proxy through a lesser order of priesthood.
Priests are Called, Ordained, Washed, and Anointed
● When the children of Israel forfeited their right to the higher priesthood and its
associated blessings and responsibilities, the Lord established the Levitical Priesthood
among them (D&C 84:18–27).
● Through this order of the priesthood Israel enjoyed the principles of the preparatory
● They were reminded continually of the atoning sacrifice of the Savior, who was
symbolically represented before them in the person [of the] priest (Leviticus 8:5–10;
21:10; Hebrews 7:11–12, 21; D&C 107:1, 13–20; Hebrews 5:4; JS-History 1:68–72).
● Exodus 28:1 Aaron and his sons were called by revelation to serve in the priesthood.
● Exodus 29, 30, 40 The priests were consecrated according to the Lord’s instructions.
● Leviticus 8:6–8,30 Moses washed and anointed Aaron first.
Priesthood garments were then placed upon him.
● Hebrews 5:4 No man takes the honor of the priesthood unto himself.
He must be called of God.
He must be properly ordained by one having authority “as was Aaron”
● D&C 42:11 Priesthood holders must be ordained by some one who has authority.
It must be known to the Church that he has authority (sustained by members).
He must be regularly ordained by the heads of the church.
● Exodus 28:2–43 The official clothing of the high priest was prepared according to revelation.
● Exodus 28:2–3 Priesthood garments were always required for ordinances.
— The Ephod: Worn over a blue robe, it was made of blue, purple, and
scarlet material, with gold designs embroidered on it
— An Apron: Was fastened at the shoulders with 12 onyx stones,
symbolizing the carrying of Israel on the priest’s shoulders
— A Breastplate: On the front of the apron, containing 12 stones that also
represented the 12 tribes of Israel
● Exodus 28:30 The Urim (“lights”) and Thummin (“perfections”) were two “seer
stones” given actual names by the Lord.
They were placed behind the breastplate in a pouch.
Abraham had them in his day.
Joseph Smith received the one once had by the Brother of Jared.
Possession of the Urim and Thummin qualifies a prophet to be
called a “seer.”
● The Robes: The high priest’s robe was required before he could go through the
veil and enter the presence of the Lord.
Regular priest’s robes were slightly different from the High Priest.
1 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 297.
2 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 298.
3 Ye Are the Light of the World, 210–211.
4 The Encyclopedia Judaica, s.v. “tabernacle,” 15:687.
5 The Encyclopedia Judaica, s.v. “tabernacle,” 15:687.
6 Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary, 1:2:387–88.
7 McConkie, The Promised Messiah, 431.
8 Barclay, The Mind of St. Paul, 87–88.
9 Wilson, Old Testament Word Studies, s.v. “cherubim,” 75.